I'm asking this question about the history of computation. It's currently active, so I'm wondering if crossposting, in this case, would be ok. It's also on the history of computation, but some may view this as research. Would this be an appropriate subject/question for this site? I thought that researchers here may want to know about this.
I don't see how a post on the history of computation is not at some level about theory. In fact I'd argue that it's ALL theory, up until the time when actual computers were designed. My problem with posting the question here is not one of scope: it's one of nature. The question is really asking for a ton of references, and is overly broad. Most parts of the question would be answered by a textbook, some reference literature and some time spent in libraries.
A more focused question along the lines of "I was looking for information on this particular nugget in the history of computation, and wanted to know if anyone had any information" would be perfectly in scope.
As for whether it should be on math.SE, I actually think it's more appropriate either here or on CS.SE (if appropriately tailored as above).
I don't think that this question is on topic on CSTheory.SE, as it is not about theory per se.
It certainly could be considered as on topic on CS.SE, though it might be a little broad. In any case, cross-posting is generally frowned upon. You can either ask the Mathematics.SE people to migrate the question to CS.SE. Perhaps asking this question on meta.CS.SE will help prevent your question being closed.